Category Archives: pigmentation

How long does a skin tan last?

One common concern individuals with darker skin face is tanning with exposure to UV radiation from the sun. While this is much sought after by people with fair skin, it is not well perceived by brown skin individuals who often desire a tan-free complexion.

why does tanning occur?

Tanning can be of various types and while the exact mechanisms of how tanning occurs still remains elusive, the various types of pigmentary response to UVR exposure seems to have a different underlying reason as to how it happens.

Immediate Pigment Darkening:

This happens within minutes of sun exposure. UVA radiation from the sun causes a chemical reaction ( photo-oxidation) of the pre-melanin pigment present in the melanocytes (pigment producing cells) in our skin.

Persistent Pigment Darkening

This occurs with UVB exposure and is thought to be due to increase activity in the melanocytes which then produces more melanin. The dendrites (finger-like projections of the cells) of the melanocytes extend and branch out more into the surrounding skin-cells (keratinocytes) to transfer their melanosomes (organelles where the melanin pigment is formed and stored) into these cells thus causing the increase visible pigmentation on the skin.

what about a tan that last for months?

For most individuals, once exposure to UVR is discontinued, a skin tan will fade in a few weeks. However, for some a skin tan can last for months even with cessation of sun exposure. This have been recently described in the litterature as “Long-lasting pigmentation”.

Such long-lasting pigmentation could be explain by the following reasons:

How to fade a skin tan?

As discussed earlier, most often a skin tan fades spontaneously after a few weeks. For persistent skin tan addressing the possible reasons for the increase pigmentation could help speed up the fading process.

  1. Strict sun protection: Skin tanning will continue to occur if there is continued sun exposure. Hence, it is important to follow sun protection measures in the form of either sun protective clothing or regularly using a broad spectrum sunscreen. For sunscreen recommendations, check out my amazon storefront (for Indian options) and my Shop my shelf (for International options).
  2. Exfoliating agents: Products formulated with exfoliating acids such as glycolic acid, lactic acid etc can aid in the shedding of the upper layer of the skin. For body tan, opt for lotion formulation. I advised against using products with high concentrations of such acids that are often formulated for use over smaller areas such as the face for the entire body. For a more detailed post on “exfoliating agents“, head to my earlier blog post on “Acids in Skincare”
  3. Addressing increase melanocytic activity: Products that help to target pigmentation by by inhibiting the enzyme “tyrosinase” can also help fade a tan faster. Again, if the goal is to fade a tan on larger areas such as legs or arms, lotion formulations are the best.

Glutathione for skin lightening

Glutathione (GSH) either as oral supplements or IV drips as skin lightening agents are the go-to treatments for glowing and bright skin especially in Asian countries and India, where the quest for fair skin is a never ending journey.

In this post we will see what glutathione is? Does it work as a skin lightening agent ? Are there any studies to back up its use in beauty spas or clinics? Is it safe? And is it worth it?

Introduction to Glutathione

Proposed mechanism of GSH as a skin lightening agent

Current scenario

What is the current evidence ?

Concerns with GSH as a Skin Lightening agent

Final word on glutathione for skin lightening

The evidence for oral or topical glutathione for skin lightening is
still not convincing yet to warrant a unanimous recommendation for skin
lightening or as a treatment for pigmentation

Is there a way to naturally increase GSH stores in our body?

YES you can.

The most economical & sustainable way to prevent glutathione depletion in our body is by preventing the need for GSH in the body in the first place by reducing oxidative stress.

Lifestyle habits that one can make to reduce oxidative stress :

  • Limit alcohol consumption
  • Quit smoking
  • Diet rich in fruits, vegetables and nuts which delivers amino acids required for GSH production or rich in other antioxidants : Tomatoes, oranges, spinach, asparagus, avocado, berries, walnuts, almonds ( best consumed raw or lightly steamed)
  • Whey protein is a good source of cysteine (an amino acid essential for GSH synthesis)

Skin changes during pregnancy

Pregnancy, one of the most beautiful journey for a women, but it can be associated with many skin changes that can be bothersome and add unnecessary stress during this time.

These changes in the skin, hair or nails are normal and expected, but the good news is, they are temporary and resolve spontaneously post delivery to a great extent even if not completely to a pre pregnant state. Let’s look at what these changes can be and how you can address them.


This one of the most common change that can see seen in upto 90% of pregnant women. It is more pronounced in women with brown to darker skin type. Body folds, or areas of the body which are normally pigmented such as the under arms, inner thighs, become more pigmented. For some women, diffuse hyperpigmentation can occur.

Such pigmentation does not require any treatment but if one is concern and wants to address it then one can use some product such as lotions, toners etc. Be careful not to overuse AHA’s (gycolic acid) the the underarm areas.


Another common pigmentation issue that develops during pregnancy.

Which skincare are safe to use during pregnancy?

Most skincare, be it moisturisers or serums or sunscreens (chemical or physical) can be used safely during pregnancy.

Experts often recommended limiting the amount of exposure to or avoiding certain ingredients as a precautionary measure and not because the ingredient is harmful to the mother or the developing baby.

Hydroquinone (HQ) can be substantially absorbed into the blood stream when applied topically to the skin. Even though there have never been reports of it causing any adverse effects to the baby when used during pregnancy. It is still recommended to limit one’s exposure to HQ or avoid it during pregnancy.

Retinoids are recommended to be avoided during pregnancy based on the evidence that Oral vitamin A analogues when taken orally during pregnancy can cause birth defects in the developing baby. And as topical retinoids are also vitamin A derivatives, it’s recommended to avoid using them during pregnancy if possible just as a precautionary measure. There is no evidence to suggest that one needs to discontinue topical retinoids if one is trying to conceive.

If you are conflicted with making a decision on whether to avoid such ingredients or continue using them in you routine during pregnancy, it’s best to discuss this with your treating dermatologist and gynaecologist who can help guide you make the decision that is best suited for you individually.

Stretch marks

When it comes to preventing pregnancy stretch marks or reducing their appearance, there are not much options out there and most products available in the market that promises otherwise do not work.

The use of products containing cantella asiatica or silicones or hyaluronic acid have some weak evidence that they may help with the appearance of the stretch marks when applied regularly. However these are not miracle creams, you may still develop stretch marks despite using such products regularly.

If you want to try such products, go ahead, just make sure to spend some time massaging the products into your skin as the increase blood circulation to the skin as a result of the massage may be able to help to some extent and set realistic expectations so that you do not get disappointed.

Oils such as rosemary oil, olive oil, cocoa butter, shea butter have never been proven to help.

Acids in Skincare

We’ve all heard of acids such as glycolic acids, and if you’re acne prone- salicylic acid and the rest. These acids are used in skincare products as chemical exfoliants i.e they help to chemically detach cells in the upper most layer of the skin from one another, yielding a more youthful, smoother, brighter skin.

What are the various types of acids used in skincare ?

How do they work?

Lower strength acids as found in OTC cosmetics (usually <10%) works at the level of the epidermis specifically at the stratum corneum (upper most layer of skin) and causes exfoliation.

Higher strength acids (>20%) are used as in-office procedures by professionals as chemical peels. Higher strength and lower molecular size acids such as glycolic acid can penetrate deep into the skin (upto the dermis) to boost collagen, GAG’s production thereby increasing the thickness of skin, and reversing signs of photoageing such as wrinkles, deep lines, sun spots etc.

Concept behind exfoliation

As we age our skin cell turn over (cells from the lower layer, divide and mature and are eventually shed off) slows down. As a results more cells from the startum corneum accumulate on the surface which gives aged skin a more dull, and rough appearance. Chemical exfoliation using acids helps speed up the process of shedding the upper layers of the skin. Hence, incorporating acids in our skin care are of benefit a we age and and for addressing certain skin concerns. They are un-necessary for younger age groups as their skin can naturally exfoliate at a good rate.

Rough estimate on the average skin cell turnover with various age groups

Acids beyond exfoliation

Uses of acids in skin care products can be more than just for exfoliation. Different acids have a slightly unique properties that help address specific concerns.

How to choose a chemical exfoliant?

Firstly, not everyone needs a chemical exfoliant in their routine. If you do not have any skin concerns, or if you are happy if your existing routine, continue what works for you regardless of whether you have such acids or not in your routine.

Amongst AHAs : 

  1. Glycolic acid is most commonly used and widely available in skincare products. However being of smaller molecular size, it can penetrate the deeper layers of the skin and cause irritation for some. 
  2. Lactic acid: another common AHA, but has additional properties of being able to retain water thus hydrating the skin. It’s also less irritating as compared to GA 
  3. Mandelic acid : a larger molecular weight AHA that is great for people not tolerating other acids or for people with sensitive skin as it is least irritating. 

PHA and PBHAs, the newer generation acids. Not only do they provide gentle chemical exfoliation, some PBHAs such as lactonionic acid help hydrate and soothe the skin. 

Note: The tolerability of such acids are also dependent on the overall formulations. Some products have a combination of these acids for maximum benefit and least irritation. Most often you only require a single product, and try not to use too many chemical exfoliants in your skin care routine without a professional consultation. 

Products mentioned available at shop my shelf or my amazon store front (for Indian products)

What can go wrong with such products?

Irritation is the most common side effect of using such products. It can present as redness, burning or itching. It can also be seen as bumps resembling acne. Start by using such products just once-twice a week instead of every night and do not forget your sunscreen.

Some people may be allergic to certain acids, always perform a patch test prior to using such products especially if you have sensitive skin.

Over exfoliation can disrupt your skin barrier, making it sensitive, dry and irritated. In this case, stop using such chemical exfoliants and jut stick to the basics: cleanser, moisturiser and sunscreen.

If you already have a routine for your acne or pigmentation, please consult your dermatologist prior to incorporating such products in your routine.

Chemical peels: the modern day equivalent to Cleopatra’s beauty regimen

The quest for youth and beauty dates back to centuries ago when Cleopatra allegedly bathed in donkey milk (contains high amount of lactic acid which is an alpha hydroxy acid -AHA) to maintain a youthful clear skin. Cleopatra was not alone in this, the Greeks and French were also using sour milk (lactic acid) and fermented grapes (tartaric acid) for their skin.

Elisabeth Taylor as the beautiful Cleopatra

These ladies were not wrong in doing so! These centuries old beauty regimes have paved the way for modern anti ageing, and anti pigmentation beauty treatments.

So what does the 21st century beauty treatment look like?

The same concept of using sour milk etc to chemically exfoliate the upper dead layers of your skin is now being performed by dermatologists all over the world as an office based treatment called “chemical peel”.

There are various beauty treatment options available now, from creams, to LASER’s, to botox, fillers and chemical peels being one of them.

What is chemical peel?

Chemical peels are well controlled cosmetic procedures where a chemical with keratolytic property (able to exfoliate the skin cells -keratinocytes) is applied to the face with the aim of accelerating the natural exfoliation process wherein the superficial dead damaged skin is removed thereby improving the texture of skin, the appearance of fine wrinkles and decreases pigmentation.

In layman terms, chemical peels are cosmetic procedures that uses chemicals to peel off the dead layer of the skin.

The depth of such an effect will depend on the type of chemical used and the concentration of the substance ( eg. Glycolic acid- GA 10-30% is a very superficial peel i.e works in the upper epidermis while GA > 30-70% is a superficial peel effecting the lower epidermis and >70% is a medium peel reaching the dermis).

How does chemical peel work?

The skin has 3 layers : epidermis (uppermost) , dermis (middle) & sunbcutaneous fat (lowermost). The epidermis itself is divided into 4 layers (basal layer, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum and the statum corneum.

The cells in our skin undergoes a process of multiplication and differentiation (change in shape, structure and biochemical composition) in which cells in the lowermost epidermis change their shape and composition as they move up to the uppermost layer and are eventually shed off.

This is called “skin cell turnover” which normally takes 28-40 days. This turnover is faster in babies and children and slows down with age.

As the cell turnover slows down, the dead skin cells in the uppermost layer of the skin do not get renewed but accumulates and gives the skin a dull, dry and aged appearance.

Ingredients such as alpha hydroxy acids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid etc) disrupts enzymes in the skin that hold the cells together. They can therefore cause the superficial layer of the skin to exfoliate and induce new cell replacement.

At higher concentration, these acids can penetrate deeper into the dermis and stimulate the fibroblast (cells that make collagen) to produce more collagen, elastin and substance that add structure to the skin (GAG’s) thus improves skin thickness and hydration.

Tricholoroacetic acid (TCA) works by causing destruction of the cells by protein denaturation. This then stimulates new wound healing.

Overall benefits that can be achieved with chemical peels

  • Improves skin texture
  • Can even out skin tone
  • Spot peels can be used to treated selected hyper-pigmented areas
  • Salicyclic peels are used as an adjunctive treatment for acne
  • Improves the appearance of aged skin.

Procedure of a chemical peel

Chemical peels are not meant to work just on their own. One has to be motivated to follow a strict skin care plan for the maximum benefits from such a procedure.

A dermatologist will take a detailed history and clinical examination to assess if a patient is a good candidate for chemical peels.

A patient will be counselled on the skin care measures that needs to followed prior and after the procedure as well as about the expectations from this cosmetic procedure.

A process called “priming” which is done to thin out the epidermis so as the acids used in the chemical peel can penetrate the layers of the skin evenly. This step involves daily application of creams containing either retinoids/ azaelic acid/ kojic acid etc for at least 2-4 weeks prior the chemical peel procedure.

Sunscreens is an absolute must before and after the procedure.

A dermatologist may do a test peel behind the ear or other areas just to check if a patient is allergic to any of the ingredient or to assess for potential side effects.

Chemical peels are done in an office based setting once in a 3-4 weeks for 6-7 sessions depending on a patient’s response. The chosen acid is applied to the entire face or target area using a brush after degreasing the face. The peels are left for a certain contact time which is increased every session ( for eg, for the first session the contact time maybe 2 min which is then increased by a minute or two every successive session).

Post peel care

This step is just as important as the actual peel procedure.

Cold compression using ice packs if there is any redness after the prcedure.

Strict sun protection using broad spectrum sunscreens.

Use mild cleansers or soap free cleansers for washing the face.

Use a moisturiser at least twice daily to help reduce the peeling of the skin.

Avoid facial waxing, threading, facials and skin bleaching procedures for at least 1 week after the procedure.

Avoid scratching, picking or peeling of the skin.


Chemical peels are not free form side effects, that’s why pre procedure counselling and right patient selection is very important.

The possible side effects are :

  • Persistent redness of skin
  • Post inflammatory hyper or hypo-pigmentation (i.e dark or light spots)
  • Scarring
  • Excessive peeling of skin
  • Scabbing
  • Allergic reactions.
  • Scabbing.

Chemical peels are add on cosmetic procedures that can be used for various indications. The effects can be impressive when done by an experienced dermatologist and when a patient is compliant with the pre and post peel skin care.

Never try to attempt a self chemical peel at home with products that can be bought online because the side effects could be permanent if sub optimal products are used and with inexperienced hands.

Freckles or Sun spots?

The beauty standards of this world fuelled by unrealistic expectations through social media has made the slightest blemishes on the skin an un-welcomed sight.

The world is more forgiving towards skin blemishes now, luxury brands are embracing models with vitiligo, freckles have made their way into instagram filters and I personally love seeing this change.

I’m hoping this post will help individuals understand why freckles occur and hopefully help one embrace them.

What are freckles?

Ephelides the medical term for freckles are small unform light brown pigmented areas (maucles) usually occurring on sun exposed skin such as the cheeks, bridge of nose or over the hands.

They are commonly seen in fair skinned individuals with red hair and blue eyes. Freckles can also occur in Asian and Indian skin type though with lesser prevalence.

In an Indian study of pigmentation disorders in Indian skin type, melasma was the commonest cause and freckles only contributed to ~7% of the study population.

Freckles usually start appearing in childhood & adolescence period.

What causes freckles?

Genetics plays a huge role, mutation of a gene encoding for melanocortin receptors have been found especially in red haired individuals. A positive family history of freckles is usually present.

UV radiation stimulates the melanocytes to produce more melanin (the pigment of our skin) and it also increases the transfer of the melanin to the keratinocytes (cells of the upper layers of our skin) and is responsible for the pigmenation.

Image source:

The number of melanocytes (specialised cells in the skin that makes the pigment melanin) are not increased but there is an increase activity of these melanocytes.

For an individual who is genetically predisposed, UVR (sun exposure) can cause the development of freckles

How to differentiate freckles from sun spots?

  • Freckles/ Ephelids
Image source

Freckles appear at early childhood (2-3 years) over the cheeks, nose or the hands.

They are light brown, 1-5 mm in size, round to oval, regular & well defined patches. Freckles are mostly uniform in size, colour and distribution.

They become darker on sun exposure and fade with strict sun protection. Hence they tend to be more prominent in summer and lighter in winter.

They may even fade with age.

  • Solar lentigens / Sun spots
Image credit : DermNetNZ

Starts appearing in adulthood 20-30 years.

Light -dark brown patches on the sun exposed areas such as face, upper neck, hands. They are larger & more irregular than freckles.

Can occur both in light and dark coloured skin.

Caused by prolonged sun exposure over time.

They become darker with more sun exposure and do not fade in winter. They are persistent throughout life and no not fade with time. They may even increase in number with age.

When to worry about freckles?

A child with multiple freckles and a severe intolerance to sunlight

If the child develops severe sun burns even with minimal sun exposure, a detailed medical examination may be required to rule out genetic disorders such as xeroderma pigmentosa where the cells fail to repair the DNA damaged by UV radiation.

Are freckles harmful?

Freckles are completely harmless unless if its associated with the above mentioned condition.

How to fade freckles?

Freckles respond well to strict sun protection either in the form of sunscreens or physical protection.

I’ve mentioned in my previous blog posts on how to achieve a good level of sun protection.

Other form of treatments are topical creams such as hydroquinone or retinoids. However these tend to give an uneven result.

Chemical peels have shown good results, such as spot TCA or Phenol peels. In these procedures, a high strength alpha hydroxy acid (glycolic acid, mandelic acid etc) or caustic acid (TCA)are applied by a dermatologist using a toothpick or cotton buds to the freckles. These areas then forms a scab with falls off in 7-10 days and heals with a normal pigmented skin.

LASERS have been widely used successfully for fading the freckles as well.

All the above procedures do come with certain side effects such as irritation, redness, pigmentation (especially in dark skinned individuals). Therefore always find a dermatologist experienced in this field to perform such procedures.

Recurrence of the freckles or sun spots can occur hence strict sun protection must be maintained even when the freckles have faded.

My advised is, start loving your sunscreen, use it judiciously for best results.

Try the other treatment options if you are very concerned about the freckles but in my opinion, every blemish, or scar or mole adds character to your face, learn to embrace it.

Melasma: the number one facial pigmentation

As I was growing up I’ve seen my mum and most of my aunts trying in vain every remedy available for the pigmentation on their face

What is melasma?

Melasma also called cloasma is a common acquired hyperpigmentation disorder affecting mostly women in their reproductive age groups (~15-45 years) . It is the most common pigmentation disorder & is seen more commonly especially in individuals with darker skin type (FST IV-VI) affecting 9 -50% of the such high risk population . (Find out your skin type here)

What causes melasma?

Cause of melasma is multifactorial and factors such as UV radiation, elevated estrogen (female hormones) level work together to result in melasma in genetically predisposed individuals
  • Genetics: Certain genes are responsible for up regulating enzymes in the melanogenesis pathway (process of melanin production) which results in more melanin production.
  • UV Rays: Increase production of reactive oxygen species, which can then increase tyrosinase activity.
  • Hormones: Estrogen can up regulate enzymes (tyrosinase) and genes in the melanogenesis pathway, resulting in increase pigment production in genetically predisposed individulas.

How does it present?

Melasma presents with tan brown reticulate (lacy) pigmentation described in three distinct pattern on the face.

  1. Centro facial pattern: Most common pattern affecting the forehead, nose, upper lip, chin and cheeks
  2. Malar pattern : As seen in the below images affects the malar area (cheeks) of face
  3. Mandibular pattern: Affects the jawline and chin, mostly seen in late onset melasma

Melasma in women can present for the first time in pregnancy and its referred to as “Mask of Pregnancy“. Treatment of which is more difficult because of the increase estrogen level in the body and as most medications used for pigmentation may not be safe during pregnancy.

The good news is that in some women, this mask of pregnancy is transient and will fade with time and proper management.

Can melasma occur in males?

Yes, melasma can occur in males as well. The male to female is ratio 1:9 i.e for every 9 females with melasma, 1 male individual also suffers from melasma. It has also been reported to have a higher prevalence in Indian males compared to Caucasian males.

Does melasma occur elsewhere besides the face?

Yes, rarely it can involve the neck, chest, the upper arms or forearms and it’s called “Extra facial melasma”

How is it diagnosed?

Most of the time a dermatologist can diagnose melasma by just examining it.

A wood’s lamp examination may be used to assess the dept of the pigmentation i.e if it is epidermal (superficial) or dermal (deep) pigmentation. Epidermal pigmentation respond to treatment better.

Occasionally a skin biopsy (examining of a skin sample under a microscope) may be required for a definitive diagnosis as all facial pigmentation is not melasma.

Treatment options

The hunt for the cure for melasma is still ongoing.

Though numerous treatment options are available now, there is still no “one product” that does it all.

The mainstay of treatment is avoiding the factors responsible for it as much as possible. Since one cannot change one’s genetic makeup, taking measures to avoid the modifiable factors (such strict sun protection) will help prevent its occurrence and reduce the appearance of an already developing melasma.

Its always good to know your personal risk of developing melasma so as you can actively prevent it from occurring in the future.

If melasma is highly prevalent in your ethnic group (for eg: melasma is highly prevalent in my hometown i.e Shillong, Northeast India) start taking preventive measures at the earliest. Its best to consult a dermatologist as early as possible at the start of the pigmentation rather than after a trail and error of using multiple self prescribed creams and remedies.

Shillong, though blessed with its hills, rivers, waterfalls and clouds, being at a higher altitude (1525 m above sea level) means it gets more UV rays than lower altitude areas and the cloud cover aids in scattering these UV rays. Understanding these facts will help individuals be more aware of the need of sun protection even in cloudy, pleasant days without the sun shining bright.

The first step to the treatment or prevention of melasma is strict sun protection. No creams, chemical peels or LASERS will effectively work if one is not complaint with this step

Ideal choice and method of a sunscreen application:

  • SPF of at least 30 (measure of UVB protection)
  • PA factor +++ (measure of UVA protection)
  • Gel formulation or matte finish for those with oily skin
  • Apply to both face and neck at least 20 mins prior to sun exposure and reapply every 2 hours especially when outdoors
  • Sunscreen application should be on all days even when the sky is cloudy or rainy
  • Use a sunscreen even when indoors (as glass cannot filter UVA light)

Other measures of sun protection include using a wide brim hat during your outing tot he beach or during any outdoor activity.

Avoid the peak hours of the day such as between 12 noon -2 pm when the sun is directly above the earth.

Seek shade whenever possible

Treatment to reduce pigmentation

Now that we’ve had sun protection covered, you will need to seek expert opinion (dermatologist) for further management as there are many active ingredients available for treating pigmentation and not everything is suitable for everyone.

If you are on medications such as oral contraceptive pills containing estrogen or drugs for seizures such as phenytoin which could be the potential cause of the melasma, then its best to speak to your treating physician for a possible changeover of the medications.

What are the treatment options available?

To understand how the treatments work, we first need to have an overview of how melanin (pigment responsible for our skin, hair, eyes colour) is formed.

Melanogenesis i.e process of melanin formation in melanocytes (cells for melanin production). The 3 main types of melanin are eumelanin brown, eumelanin black & phaeomelanin (yellow red). Humans have all 3 types but the ratio of each type of melanin is different in different ethnic group. For eg more pheomelanin is present in red heads with pale fair skin, more of brown eumelanin is seen in blondes and more of eumelanin black is seen in brown-black skin type with black hair.

Topical medications for melasma

Various options are availabe in the form or creams, ointments or serums and the choice will differ from patient to patient.

Topicals required long term and consistent use for the best results.

Not every option will work for everyone

Some of the active ingredients that are use to reduce pigmentation are enumerated in the tables below:

There are numerous options for the treatment of melasma, and the choice will depend with every patient.

For best results, sun protection, strict compliance and abundance of patience is required as improvement can only be appreciated after months of consistent skin care routine.

Oral medications for melasma

Trenexamic acid – An anti fibrinolytic drug that prevents the breakdown of protein (fibrin) present in blood clots. Therefore it is traditionally used to treat bleeding disorders.

It has been shown to be effective for the treatment of melasma in low doses. It has been show to produce results in 3 months but relapse rates are high and melasma recurs within 3 months of discontinuation of the drug.

Side effects are nausea, vomiting & serious side effects such as heart attacks, blood clots in veins of legs, renal injury (kidney problems) could potentially occur in individuals at risk.

Chemical peels

Dermatological procedure where acids of higher strength is used such as glycolic acid, salicylic acid, trichloroacetic acid etc are applied to the face or pigmented area by a dermatologist for a short contact time.

The procedure is done every 3-4 weeks for 5-6 sessions depending on the patient’s response.

Second line treatment for those not responding to topicals alone.

Expensive and requires an experienced hand.

LASER for melasma

Various types of LASER are available for the treatment of melasma.

LASER treatment can be tricky especially in individual’s with darker skin type as the risk of pigmentation is higher. LASER are usually reserved for resistant cases not responding to the above mentioned treatment options.

LASER are not one time treatment. Creams and sunscreens will still be required to maintain the result and prevent recurrence.

LASER treatment are expensive but may be worth it when done by experienced hand.

There is still no cure for melasma.

Seek guidance from a dermatologist as the appearance of the pigmentation can be improved with either depigmenting creams & sunscreens or a combination of treatment especially when the treatment is started early.

Azaelic acid for your skin care

Azaelic acid is one of the most underrated active skin care ingredient which is found naturally in our skin, and is helpful in the treatment acne,rosacea and as part for your skin care routine for a blemish free skin.

Azaelic acid (AA) is a dicarboxylic acid that is naturally found in wheat, rye and barley. Azaelic acid is also produced by a yeast that lives in our skin called Malassezia furfur. This explains why over colonisation by this yeast results in pale patches in the skin which is medically termed as Pityriasis versicolor. Owing to this acid’s potential to cause reduce pigmentation, azaelic acid has been widely used to treat hyperpigmentation.

How does it work?

  • Azaelic acid has been shown to have a bacteriostatic (inhibits the growth of microbacteria) and bactericidal (kills the microbacteria) action against micro organisms in our skin particularly Priopionibacterium sp (bacteria responsible for acne).
  • Azaelic acid also displays anti keratinising effect i.e it inhibits the proliferation of keratinocytes (cells of our skin) which would otherwise build up and clog our pores thus leading to formation of comedone (white or black head)- precursors for acne. If you recall from my previous posts, retinoids (vitamin A derivative) also has this action. AA does not however reduce sebum production (oil secretion) in your skin unlike oral isotretinoin (vitamin A derivative used in the treatment of acne).
  • Azaelic acid demonstrated cytotoxic effect (toxic to cell) towards active melanocytes (pigment producing cells of our skin), which means it does not affect the inactive melanocytes in the normal skin, thus it particularly targets just the abnormally pigmented area. It also inhibits the action of the enzyme tyrosinase, which is required for melanin (skin pigment) synthesis. Therefore it is effective as a skin lightening agents and is used to treat pigmentation disorders.
  • Azaelic acid (AA) has been found to act as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) therefore reduces inflammation and redness of the skin.
  • Source :

Dermatological conditions in which Azaelic acid is proven to be beneficial


Azaelic acid in the strength of 20% have been shown to be effective in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. Studies have shown that twice daily application of 20% AA cream is effective than a vehicle (cream without any active ingredient) in the management of acne. Significant results were only well appreciated after 12 weeks i.e 3 months of continuous use. A study has also shown that 20% AA is as effective as 0.05% tretinoin (retinoid) in the treatment of comedonal acne.

Another study comparing the effectiveness of 15% AA with 5% benzoyl peroxide and 1% clindamycin gel (other active ingredients for the treatment of acne) showed equal efficacy of AA at the end of 4 months.

All these studies as well as reports from dermatologists have noted that the average time of achieving improvement with AA for acne was ~73 days equivalent to over 2 months of continuous use.

Azaelic acid is a great option for acne prone skin especially if someone is not tolerating other active ingredients used for acne such as adapalene, tretinoin or benzoyl peroxide.


AA is FDA approved in the US for the management of rosacea (particularly papupopustular rosacea). Rosacea is a condition which can present like acne with multiple red bumps with red inflamed cheeks. Patients with rosacea have extremely sensitive skin and the redness can be triggered by various stimuli such as hot drinks, smoking etc.

15-20% AA used topically twice a day was shown to be effective for reducing the number of papules and pustules and to a little extent the redness in patients with rosacea. These improvement were achieved over a 15 week course of treatment.


Azaelic acid either alone or in combination with various other active ingredients is used to fight pigmentation. A study on the effectiveness of topical 20% AA in patients with FST IV -VI i.e brown or Indian skin type to black African type, concluded that twice daily application of AA lighten the pigmentation after 24 weeks (6 months) and also improved the smoothness and texture of the skin (which is great if you’re trying to even out your skin tone and skin texture)

Combination of 20% AA and 0.05% tretinoin is also available for the treatment of melasma. The study to support this combination compared AA as monotheray vs the combination therapy. Patient showed faster improvement in the form of decrease pigmentation and decrease in the size of the pigmented area in the combination group than AA monotherapy. However at the end of the study, i.e 6 months both treatment form achieved similar overall results.

How to use azaelic acid ?

Studies on azaelic acid either use 15% or 20% AA applied to the entire face twice a day. The side effects are mild stinging sensation or itching for the initial few days which subsides with subsequent continuous use.

  • First cleanse your face using a gentle cleanser
  • Let your face dry for like 30 mins and then apply a small amount of AA to your entire face.
  • If you are new to active ingredients for your skin care, I suggest starting with a low strength such as 10% AA twice a day to a clean face which can then be increased to 15% or even to a maximum of 20% AA.
  • This can then be layer with a moisturiser on top.
  • Do not forget your sunscreen in the morning after the above routine.
  • AA can be used as spot treatment for the inflamed acne or rosacea as well in addition to the twice daily application.

What to expect with Azaelic acid?

AA is a good option to treat mild to moderate acne and rosacea and its safe during pregnancy and can be used safely in nursing mothers as well.

For those of you who are planning pregnancy, or are pregnant, AA is a great option to use especially for someone who was using a retinoid (which is contraindicated in pregnancy) and needs some other active ingredient for their skin care.

Azaelic acid will definitely test your patience. Acne and rosacea usually show improvement in 2-6 months while it can take upto 6 months to achieve significant results with AA for pigmentation disorders such as Melasma.

Azaelic acid available in the market

AA is available as 10%,15% and 20% cream and gel particularly used for the treatment of acne and rosacea.

Finacea 15% is available as a foam and is particularly useful for rosacea who cannot tolerate other ingredients present in the cream base.

AA is also available as a combination of 20% AA + 0.05% tretinoin cream and as a combination with trenexamic acid in a serum form.

All about sunscreens

Sunscreens are the number one skin care product every dermatologist swears by. In the Western countries, where the incidence of sunburns and skin cancers are high among Caucasians, sunscreen is life saving. In a country like India, where the individual’s skin type (FST IV and V) predisposes them to pigmentation disorders (melasma, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation -PIH), sunscreens are the first armour to fight against pigmentation.

Lets recap a little on solar radiation, so as to understand what exactly a sunscreen does.

UVA– 98-99% of the solar radiation reaching the earth’s surface. UVA is the spectrum of UV radiation that can penetrate the dermis and is responsible for immediate tanning, photoaging, pigmentary disorders, photodermatoses such as polymorphous light eruption etc

UVB– 1-2% of UVR reaching the earth’s surface. UVB is highly energetic but does not penetrate beyond the epidermis (superficial layer of skin) and is responsible for sunburns, skin cancers and delayed tanning. UVB is also required for Vitamin D synthesis in our body.

UVC– filtered out by the ozone layer and does not reach the earth’s surface.

How sunscreens work?

There are two types of sunscreen :

Physical or inorganic sunscreens

They contain titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, iron oxide, or calamine, and functions by forming a coat on the skin that reflects, scatter or absorb the UVR. Physical sunscreens are ideal for patients with sensitive skin as the ingredients do not interact with the proteins and lipids in the skin, and they can protect against both UVA and UVB radiation but they bear the disadvantage of leaving a white cast on the skin. The newer physical sunscreens are relatively more expensive as well.

Micronised & ultrafine particles of zinc or titanuim oxide are generally considered more acceptable cosmetically. Multiple positive reviews on elta MD and LRP physical sunscreen, consumers remarked that these sunscreens do not leave white cast and blends easily.

Neutrogena and kiehl’s have mixed reviews. They seems to be well suited for fair skin individuals and not very aesthetically pleasing to individuals with darker skin tone.

Chemical or organic sunscreen

Most sunscreens available in the market are chemical sunscreens. They contain ingredients that can absorb UVR and converts it to heat energy which then dissipates into the environment. They do not leave a white cast on the skin and hence considered more cosmetically acceptable.

Chemical sunscreens are most commonly found in the market. Bioderma photoderm max has a combination of both physical and chemical sunscreen and no white cast on application.

Active ingredients in chemical sunscreens

It is not uncommon to find a mixture of both physical and chemical sunscreen as well. The disadvantage of a chemical sunscreen is that the active ingredients can react with components in the skin such as proteins and lipids which then may result in wanted production of reactive oxygen species causing irritation to the skin. Susceptible individuals may be sensitized to these components in the sunscreen which will manifest as contact allergic dermatitis (red, itchy skin). For this reason physical sunscreens are preferred for patients with sensitive skin.

What does SPF and PA factor mean?

SPF stands for sunburn protection factor which is a measure of protection against UVB induced sunburn. Sunscreen which only mentions SPF means they only provide protection against UVB and not UVA ( the spectrum which is responsible for pigmentation, photoaging). The grading of SPF is as follows:

  • Low: SPF 2 – 15
  • Medium: SPF 15 – 30
  • High: SPF 30 – 50
  • Highest: SPF >50

An SPF of 15 blocks 93% and an SPF of 30 blocks 95% of the UVB radiation. Note that double the SPF does not mean double the protection. Sunscreens with higher SPF contains more active ingredients which may make the product less pleasing to use to some individuals.

PA factor measures the protection against UVA. It measures the Persistent pigment darkening (PPD) or tanning after UVA exposure.

  • PA + : some protection from UVA
  • PA ++: moderate protection
  • PA +++: best protection
  • PA ++++: highest protection : rare to find this in products

How to use a sunscreen?

A given sunburn protection factor in a sunscreen can be obtained only when the right amount of sunscreen is used. Studies use 2mg/cm2 when testing for SPF in a sunscreen, however in reality we tend to use a lesser amount which will then result in a lower SPF than what is labelled in the sunscreen. Therefore dermatologist recommend a higher SPF (SPF>30) to help compensate for the inadequate application.

Dermatologist use the “teaspoon rule” to determine the correct amount of sunscreen needed.

  • 3 mL (slightly more than half a teaspoon)- 3 mL for each arm and 3 mL for the face and neck
  • 6 mL (slightly more than a teaspoon)- 6 mL for each leg, 6 mL of the chest and 6 mL for the back

Apply a sunscreen at least 20 mins prior to outdoor exposure so as the ingredients can form a uniform layer on the skin. It is also ideal to wait 20 mins before putting on clothes otherwise a significant amount of sunscreen will be wiped away during the contact with clothing. The best way to do this is to apply a sunscreen right after a shower or washing your face in the morning and not wait until its time you get dressed for work.

When to re-apply a sunscreen?

We are all familiar with the golden rule of “re-application of sunscreens” which states that a sunscreen must be re-applied every 2 hours as physical activities like touching your face, sweating, friction from contact with sand at the beach can remove some amount of sunscreen from your skin. Reapplication is also recommended after activities in water.

So does this rule apply to modern water-resistant sunscreens which can bind effectively to the skin and retains its said SPF even after 40-80 mins immersion in water?? Recent studies have shown that reapplication helps compensate for the under application of sunscreens. Reapplication after 20 mins also provides better protection against sunburn than delayed reapplication i.e after 2 hours. Therefore early reapplication of a sunscreen is preferred, ideally within the first hour of the first application.

Gentle application is better for sunscreens with gel, or creams consistency. Rubbing it immediately on the skin is recommended for spray sunscreens.

Always search for a broad spectrum sunscreen (UVA & UVB protection) and a water resistant sunscreen.

White cast of physical sunscreens.

The white cast blends with the skin in 30-40 secs of gentle rubbing.

Aesthetics of chemical sunscreens

No white cast, no excuse. Wear sunscreen.

Scientific evidence of the effectiveness of sunscreens for melasma in Indian patients.

A recently published study in the Indian journal of dermatology which studied the efficacy of two different sunscreens on skin pigmentation. A total of 230 patients were recruited in the study. One group was given a sunscreen with an SPF of 50 with PA +++ and the other group a sunscreen of SPF 19 and PA +++. At the end of 12 weeks of twice daily usage, a significant improvement in the form of decrease density of pigmentation and better radiance was noted in both groups. The conclusion is that:

Regular use of a sunscreen with high UVA protection (PA+++) highly effective in improving the skin radiance and in decreasing the skin pigmentation.

So my advised is always look for a sunscreen with PA+++ if you have pigmentation issues, and if you are also prone to sunburns, then get one with an SPF of at least 30.

Hope this was helpful. And stay tune to my next posts on “Controversies regarding sunscreens”.